Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase

Supplementary MaterialsSupplemental Information srep42104-s1

Supplementary MaterialsSupplemental Information srep42104-s1. triglyceride accumulation and cell proliferation between brands of tissue culture plates. Our results suggest that the selection of a cell system and differentiation protocol significantly impacts the detection of adipogenic chemicals, and therefore, influences reproducibility of these studies. Both mechanistic laboratory and epidemiological studies implicate exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) as a factor in many adverse human health trends. EDCs include 1,000 or more synthetic or naturally occurring chemicals or mixtures of chemicals that are able to interfere with hormone action1; some of these, termed metabolic disruptors, have been shown to directly increase weight gain and/or triglyceride accumulation, and have been reviewed previously2. The prevalence of metabolic disorders, such as obesity, is currently of great societal concern3,4. Obese individuals have an increased risk of type II diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and other adverse health effects, and these conditions contribute to more than $215 billion in annual US health care costs5. Due to the extensive costs and time involved in using models, there is a great need to identify and validate appropriate models for screening chemicals that can increase pre-adipocyte proliferation and/or triglyceride accumulation6. The 3T3-L1 mouse pre-adipocyte cell line has proven useful as Kinetin riboside an screen for identifying adipogenic chemicals that can be further assessed or but does act as a PPAR agonist and AR antagonist64,65. As such, given the mechanism of action for BPA/BPAF and the divergent adipogenic/lipogenic pathways in these cells relative to 3T3-L1, these are likely false negatives for OP9. While this is a small set of chemicals tested, this false negative rate is inappropriately high to make this model realistic as a screening tool, particularly considering the lower relative responses to LXR, GR, and TR-driven triglyceride accumulation. A greater concern is the heterogeneity of response between the different cell sources of 3T3-L1 Kinetin riboside cells. In 2012, Zebisch as has been previously suggested22. Most importantly, comparing adipogenic responses between studies is nearly impossible when complete dose responses of reference compounds are not included. Despite this, most studies present either one positive control concentration or only present fold induction relative to vehicle; this fails to demonstrate maximal response or sensitivity of the cells and provides insufficient data for subsequent replication. Cell source and differentiation protocols must be clearly Kinetin riboside defined, as this can contribute to a wide degree of variation. It is also clear that both triglyceride accumulation and cell proliferation should be assessed, as chemicals acting through one mechanism or the other may be otherwise missed. While the majority of laboratories appear to utilize the ATCC 3T3-L1 cells, the provenance of these cells is questionable and discordant responses are observed between these lots and in relation to the originally isolated 3T3-L1 cells (Zenbio). Materials and Methods Chemicals Chemicals were purchased as follows: RSG (Sigma cat # R2408, 98%), tributyltin chloride (Aldrich cat # “type”:”entrez-nucleotide”,”attrs”:”text”:”T50202″,”term_id”:”652062″,”term_text”:”T50202″T50202, 96%), T0070907 (Tocris cat # 2301, 99%), GW9662 (Sigma cat # M6191, 98%), BPA (Sigma cat # 239658, 99%), TBBPA (Aldrich cat # 25,759C1, 99%), TCBPA (Aldrich cat # 330396, 99%), BPAF (TCI America cat # T0062, 99%), GW3965 (Sigma cat #G6295, 98%), E2 (Sigma cat # E8875, 98%), flutamide (Sigma cat # F9397, 99%), 1C850 (Millipore cat # 609315, 98%), DEX (Sigma cat # D1756, 98%), and “type”:”entrez-nucleotide”,”attrs”:”text”:”LG100268″,”term_id”:”1041422930″,”term_text”:”LG100268″LG100268 (Sigma cat # SML0279, 98%). Stock solutions were prepared in 100% DMSO (Sigma cat # D2650) and stored at ?20?C between uses. Cell Culture OP9 cells were obtained from the ATCC (cat# Kinetin riboside CRL-2749, lot# 3984779) through a Material Transfer Agreement with the Duke Cancer Institute Cell Culture Facility. OP9 cells were maintained in Minimum Essential Medium (MEM) alpha without ribonucleosides/deoxyribonucleosides Rabbit Polyclonal to QSK (Gibco cat# 12561) supplemented with 20% fetal bovine serum and 1% penicillin and streptomycin, as described previously7. OP9 cells were routinely passaged upon reaching confluency. 3T3-L1 cells were obtained from two sources: one vial was obtained from the ATCC (cat# CL-173, lot# 2268173) through the Duke Cell Culture Facility, and the other was purchased from Zenbio, Inc. (cat# SP-L1-F, lot# 3T3062104; Research Triangle Park,.